Thursday, April 22, 2010

מוקמה (Muktza) part one


Binyamin and I were learning today about מוקצה (Muktza). We first read the משנה (Mishna on page (42:2) מ"ב עמוד ב )--

אין נותנין כלי תחת הנר לקבל בו את השמן ואם נתנוה מבעוד יום מותר ואין ניאותין ממנו לפי שאינו מן המוכן

"You can't put a vessel (kli) under a 'candle' (ner) to catch (receive) into it the oil -- but if it was put there while it is still day [on Friday before Shabbat] it is permissible and you can't ******** from it because it is 'something that is not ready'"

So, when we read this, Binyamin said that this was one of the categories of מוקצה (Muktza).

 So he then said we should make a list of all the different categories we could think of that may or may not be מוקצה (Muktza) and this is what we came up with:

  • שאינו מן המוכן -- for example: oil dripping (that was supposed to fuel the wick) -- (not called מוקצה in the גמרא Gemara) -- you can find mentions of this in שבת מ"ב:ב Shabbat 42:2 and חולין י"ד:א Hulin 14:1
  • בסיס לדבר אסור -- a base for a forbidden object (for example: a candlestick tray)
  • דבר שמלאכתו לאיסור -- A thing that is used for a melakha -- work forbidden on Shabbat -- for example: cigarette lighter, TV Remote, pencil, pen
  • נולד (?) -- new egg, dripping condensation from an air conditioner, melting snow, calf born on שבת Shabbat [we couldn't decide if this was מוקצה or not]
  • מחמת איסור -- like something in a car that you can't get without setting off the alarm [I think this means something that you can't get to without doing a מלאכה melakha]
  • something that is unavailable at the beginning of שבת -- we thought נולד might be a subset of this -- for example: fruit that fell of the tree on שבת
  • מחסרון כיס -- (expensive things) -- is it things that are important to you or things that are a certain price? There's a מחלוקת mahloket -- for example: knife for a ברית -- brit or for שחיטה -- shehita
  • not a כלי -- garbage, nut shells (also not called מוקצה in the תלמוד Talmud
  • מחמת מיאוס -- it's disgusting -- for example: an old candle -- not accepted Halakhically as מוקצה)

At some point in the future, we will figure out which of these is actually מוקצה and which of these is not.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010

More on Hulin 15A-15B


So Binyamin and I have been going over חולין פרק ראשון Hulin Perek Rishon. The משנה Mishna talks about שחיטה Shehita (Kosher Slaughter), which is prohibited on Shabbat. But, according to the משנה Mishna, if one does שחיטה Shehita on Shabbat, the שחיטה Shehita is Kosher.

The משנה Mishna doesn't go into any detail about when it can be eaten, though. So the גמרא Gemara starts off with רב Rav saying that, while the שחיטה Shehita is kosher, the meat isn't permitted on that day -- meaning that you can't eat the meat on שבת Shabbat.

Later on, the tables discuss a מחלוקת (Mahloket) in a ברייתה Breita that I mentioned in a previous post in this blog about what three different Rabbis say about cooking on שבת Shabbat, but this is about שחיטה Shehita on שבת Shabbat...

Later on, the גמרא Gemara talks about a time when the תנא Tanna (the man in the Yeshiva who remembered everything that was said in the Yeshiva word for word) was talking and רב Rav silenced him. So they are trying to figure out why רב Rav silenced the תנא Tanna.

The תנא Tanna said: המבשל בשבת בשוגג יאכל במזיד לא יאכל (one who cooks on Shabbat [if it is] accidental he can eat it [if it is] on purpose he may not eat it) -- (Which is what רבי מאיר Rabbi Meir said in the ברייתה Breita) --

רב נחמן בר יצחק Rav Nahmon Bar Yitzhak said that the תנא Tanna spoke about שחיטה Shehita and רב Rav says the table (the one I mentioned earlier) was about בישול Bishul (cooking) only and not about שחיטה Shehita. When it comes to שחיטה Shehita, רב נחמן Rav Nahmon says, all agree that you can't eat it on שבת Shabbat (that is, if someone slaughters an animal on שבת Shabbat, as the משנה Mishna says, the meat is Kosher but you can't eat it until after שבת Shabbat).

משנה: "שחיטה בשבת כשרה"
רב אמר: "אסורה לאכילה ליומה

The Mishna says "Slaughter on Shabbat is Kosher"
Rav says "It is forbidden to eat it [the meat slaughtered on Shabbat] on the day [meaning Shabbat]"

So the next suggestion about why רב Rav silenced the תנא Tanna is that perhaps it was because a live animal is מוקצה Muktza on שבת Shabbat and this made the whole שחיטה Shehita on שבת Shabbat issue quite different from the בישול Bishul on שבת Shabbat issue (since the food isn't מוקצה Muktza on שבת Shabbat as the live animal is). This, too, was discarded as a reason.

Finally, they suggested that perhaps the reason רב Rav silenced the תנא Tanna was that the תנא Tanna had said that if there is a חולה Hola/e (a sick person) then the animal can be slaughtered on שבת Shabbat and the meat can be eaten. But, because he was talking to the populous at the time, not the learned assemblage, the distinction of there being a חולה Hola/e might escape them, so Rav silenced the תנא Tanna so the populous wouldn't be confused. If there is no חולה Hola/e, then all agree that you can eat the meat on שבת Shabbat is